HOW TO MEASURE THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AMONG INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS? AN EXPLORATIVE CASE STUDY ON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
The international education market is as highly competitive as it is quite big, dynamic, and responsive and even many countries around the world compete for it. Attracting international students in such a market largely depends on the level of their satisfaction and internationalization of university, one of the most important indicators of which is the number of students that it succeeds to recruit from the international education market. Hence, it is important to measure and know about how satisfied international students are and what factors affect their satisfaction for decision makers in universities. This study is an attempt to measure the satisfaction level of international students based on a conceptual model depended on literature review, which is then applied to measure the satisfaction level of internationals in Niğde University, which endeavors to get more international students. The model included a six group of variables, namely education quality, social life, economic conditions, facilities and services offered, students’ expectations, and empathy for students, as the influential factors. The data was collected from the international students in Niğde University with face-to-face questionnaire method and some exploratory data analyses were performed on it. The paper presented the findings from the analyses of data and its relevant implications.
ACE (2009). Sizing Up the Competition: The Future of International Postsecondary Student Enrollment in the United States. American Council on Education, September. https://globalhighered.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/sizingupthecompetition_september09.p df, Accessed: 13/04/2015.
Aldemir, C. & Gülcan, Y. (2004). Student Satisfaction in Higher Education: a Turkish Case. Higher Education Management and Policy, 16(2), 109-122.
Aldridge, S., & Rowley, J. (1998). Measuring Customer Satisfaction in Higher Education. Quality Assurance in Education, 6 (4), 197–204.
Anderson, R. (1973). Consumer dissatisfaction: The Effect of Disconfirmed Expectancy on Perceived Product Performance. Journal of Marketing Research, 10(2), 38-44.
Arambewela, R., & Hall, J. (2008). A Model of Student Satisfaction: International Postgraduate Students from Asia. European Advances in Consumer Research, 8, 129.
Arambewela, R., & Hall, J. (2009). An Empirical Model of International Student Satisfaction. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 21 (4), 555-569.
Arkoudis, S. (2005). Teaching International Students: Strategies to Enhance Learning. Centre for the Study of Higher Education. The University of Melbourne.
Athiyaman, A. (1997). Linking Student Satisfaction and Service Quality Perceptions: The Case of University Education. European Journal of Marketing, 31(7), 528-540.
Avram, E. M. (2011). Student Satisfaction in Higher Education and Empathy in Relationship with Them. http://holisticmarketingmanagement.ro/RePEc/hmm/v1i1/1/12.pdf. Accessed: 25/4/2015. Marketing Management Journal, 1(1), 61-64.
Băcilă, M. F., Pop, M. C., Scridon, M. A., and Ciornea, R. (2014). Development of an Instrument for Measuring Student Satisfaction in Business Educational Institutions. Contemporary Priorities in Business Education, XVI(37), 841-856
Beine, M., Noël, R., & Ragot, L. (2013). The Determinants of International Mobility of Students. Working Paper No: 2013-30 September, CEPII – Centre D’études Prospectives Et D’ Informations Internationales.
Cronin, Joseph Jr. & Taylor, Steven A. (1992). Measuring Service Quality: A Reexamination and Extension, Journal of Marketing, 56(3), 55-68.
Drucker, P. (1997). Still the Youngest Mind, Forbes, March 10, 1997.
Duque, L. C., and Lado, N. (2010). Cross-cultural Comparisons of Consumer Satisfaction Ratings: A Perspective from Albert Hirschman’s Theory. International Marketing Review, 27(6), 676-693.
Gill, A., Tibrewala, R., Poczter, A., Biger, N., Mand, H. S., Sharma, S. P., & Dhande, K. S. (2010). Effects of Transformational Leadership on Student Educational Satisfaction and Student Stress. The Open Education Journal, 3.
Grant, G.B., & Anderson, G. (2002). Customer Relationship Management: A Vision for Higher Education. Book Chapter 3, in Web Portals and Higher Education Technologies to Make IT Personal (Eds: Richard N. Katz and Associates). Publisher: Jossey-Bass Inc. Publication of Educause and Nacubo. https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/pub5006f.pdf. Accessed: 25/4/2015
Guhr, D. & Furtado, N. (2014). Understanding Imbalances in International Student Mobility, University http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20140130155355392, Accessed: 12/04/2015 News, Issue 305, 31 January,
HM Government (2013). International Education – Global Growth and Prosperity: An Accompanying Analytical Narrative, July 2013. Department for Business Innovation and Skills. www.gov.uk/bis. Accessed: 12/04/2015
Humphries, J., & Knight-Grofe, J. (2009). Canada First; The 2009 Survey of International Students. CBIE.
Hürriyet Daily (2014, 17 March). Online Version. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/egitim/26025669.asp, Accessed: 21/4/2015
ICEF Monitor (2014, 23 February). Summing up International Student Mobility in 2014. http://monitor.icef.com/2014/02/summing-up-international-student-mobility-in-2014/. Accessed: 12/04/2015
IIE (2013). The Open Doors Report on International Educational Exchange. Institute of International Doors/Data. Accessed: 12/04/2015
Jurkowitsch, S., Vignali, C. & Kaufmann, H.R. (2006). A Student Satisfaction Model for Austrian Higher Education Providers Considering Aspects of Marketing Communications. Innovative Marketing, 2(3).
Kashan, A. (2012). Measuring Student Satisfaction of Master Level Students; Evidence from University of Sargodha, Pakistan. School of Doctoral Studies (European Union) Journal, 216-222.
Kegel, K. (2009). Homesickness in International College Students. Compelling Counseling Interventions, 67-76.
Khodayari, F. & Khodayari, B. (2011). Service Quality in Higher Education, Case study: Measuring Service Quality of Islamic Azad University, Firoozkooh Branch. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business, 1(9), 38- 46.
Kotler, P. & Fox K. (2002). Strategic Marketing for Educational Institutions. Chapter 1.Upper Saddle River, New Yersey: Prentice-Hall.
Lim, Y. M., Yap, C. S. & Lee, T. H. (2011). Destination Choice, Service Quality, Satisfaction, and Consumerism: International Students in Malaysian Institutions of Higher Education. African Journal of Business Management, 5(5), 1691-1702.
Lim, Y. M., Yap, C. S. & Lee, T. H. (2011). Destination Choice, Service Quality, Satisfaction, and Consumerism: International Students in Malaysian Institutions of Higher Education. African Journal of Business Management, 5 (5), 1691-1702.
Maslen, Geoff (2014). Mass Movement of the World’s Students. University World News, Issue 305, http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20140129200018337. Accessed: 12/04/2015 31 January,
Mazzarol, T. & Soutar, G. N., (2002). The Push-Pull Factors Influencing International Student Selection of Education Destination. International Journal of Educational Management, 16(2), 82-90.
Munawar Khan, M., Ahmed, I., & Musarrat Nawaz, M. (2011). Student’s Perspective of Service Quality in Higher Learning Institutions; An Evidence Based Approach. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(11).
NAFSA (2003). In America’s Interest: Welcoming International Students – The Report of the Strategic Task Force on Internationa l Student Access. Association of International Educators, https://www.nafsa.org/uploadedFiles/NAFSA_Home/Resource_Library_Assets/Public_Pol icy/in_america_s_interest.pdf. Accessed: 13/04/2015. 2003.
Oliver, Richard L. (1980). A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17 (September), 46-49.
Pozo-Munoz, C., Rebolloso-Racheo, E. & Fernandoz-Ramirez, N. (2000). The ‘ideal teacher’: Implications for Student Evaluation of Teacher Effectiveness. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 25(3), 253-263.
Rasli, A., Danjuma, I., Yew, L. K. & Igbal, M. J. (2011). Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction in Technology-based Universities. African Journal of Business Management, 5(15), 6541- 6553.
RKA Inc. (2012). Economic Impact of International Education in Canada - An Update: Final Associates, Report. http://www.international.gc.ca/education/assets/pdfs/economic_impact_en.pdf. Accessed: 12/04/2015 & Inc. (RKA, Inc.), May 2012,
Sahin, I., & Shelley, M. (2008). Considering Students’ Perceptions: The Distance Education Student Satisfaction Model. Educational Technology & Society, 11(3), 216–223.
Teerawut, T. (2011). Undergraduate Student’s Satisfaction toward the New Education System in Thailand. International Journal of Social and Science and Humanity Studies,3(2).
UNESCO (2013). The International Mobility of Students in Asia and the Pacific. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. ISBN 978-92-9223-459-1. http://www.uis.unesco.org/Library/Documents/international-student-mobility-asia-pacific- education-2013-en.pdf. Accessed: 12/05/2013
Wilkins, S., & Balakrishnan, M. S. (2013). Assessing Student Satisfaction in Transnational Higher Education. International Journal of Educational Management, 27(2), 143-156.